|A word about examples:|
Examples that are stories involve a situation, characters, conflict, feelings, exchange of words, actions, resolutions and lessons learned. Stories are the best kind of examples because they tell so much. However, an example ca n be any of these components...in that case there may not be a resolution or a lesson.
Additional Probes for "how does it work?":
What does your brain think about right/wrong, good/bad? What kind of things does it tell you?
What does your mind know about right/wrong, good/bad? How did it get to know those things?
What kinds of ideas are stored in your mind (conscience) about right and wrong?
How is a conscience formed? How does it get in your mind in the first place?
Additional Probes to get examples:
If examples are hard to get:
If examples are all hypothetical:
|Additional Probes for eliciting feelings and psychophysiological responses:|
What is it like when you feel happy (sad, scared, mad, embarrassed, ashamed, etc).
For every person its a little different.
How do you experience that feeling physically or physiologically?
Do your feelings show in your face, or any other part of your body?
Do you put on a face when you feel that way?
How long does that feeling last? What do you do about it (if its negative)?
How do other people know your feelings about right/wrong, good/bad?
Additional Probes for "other people's reactions":
|Additional probes for secret goodness:|
For a small child a secret may be associated with lying or badness. Try the word, surprise.
Let's say, you've done a secret good deed....what happens ...?
Let's pretend that there is no possible way for your parents (teacher, friend, etc) to find out. Would that change how you felt about it?
|When moral feelings are elicited, the objective is to learn how they are used in behalf of moral growth.|
Additional probes for other people's reactions:
How upset do other people get with you? What do they do? Do they treat you differently?
Let's pretend there is absolutely no way your parents (teachers, the police, your friends,
etc. can find out)....
Let's pretend I'm a little (bug, mouse, etc.) hidden in the corner of your bedroom? Would I be able to tell you had done something wrong? Would there be any clues?
Have you ever done anything so bad/wrong that you couldn't tell anybody for a long, long time?
|Additional probes for making things right?|
And what else? And what else? And what else?
What do you do to make it fair, to make up for......, to make things turn out right?
Are there times when nothing makes things right? What do you do then?
Additional probes for feeling responses:
|The objective of Questions 6 and 7 are to retrieve stories of how parents or other primary attachment figures taught the subject a sense of right and wrong at as early an age as the child can remember. It is hypothesized that these sto
ries will reveal qualities about the strength and security of attachment relationship, theoretically necessary components of the moralization of attachment process. |
Help the subject retrive the narrative of the event with the following aids:
Help the subject elaborate views on the nature/nurture issue if s/he gives you a lead.
Help the subject elaborate views on the concept of "original sin" if s/he gives you a lead.
B. This is your time to brag. And what else? and what else? Which are the morally good things about you?
C. What things get you in trouble (with your conscience)?
Who most wants you to be a good person?
How do they get that idea across to you?
Does it get across?
Who gets most upset with you when you're done something wrong?
With whom do you get in trouble? What is "trouble"?
How do you feel about it when they (ground, punish, give you a timeout) etc.,
Is it for your own good?
What are they trying to teach you? Does it work?
Do the colors mean anything in particular?
Ask about any details that the subject doesn't spontaneously describe.
How does the "person" feel in the drawing? What is s/he thinking?
If the rules are concrete (i.e. don't knock down mailboxes) ask for a generalization (i.e. don't damage property). Younger subjects won't be able to generalize.
If a lot of rules seem to get at the same thing, ask for a generalization.
When would it be a good idea to "forget" to follow that rule?
Is that rule ever just too hard to follow?
Are there times when that rule just does not make sense?
Do you have rules in your head that are confusing?
Are there any exceptions to that rule?
Can you follow all those rules all the time?
What does your conscience know now that it didn't know when you were younger?
How much will power do you have? How often to you follow your own conscience? How hard or easy is it to follow your conscience?
Are there times you don't know what the right or good action is? What if there are two rights or two wrongs? Which action do you take?
Have you been in unusual situations that interfered with you doing the right thing or being a good person? Are there some situations you try to avoid? Are there some situations that are too tempting?
What developmental events--things that happened while you were growing up--changed your conscience? directed the development of your conscience? shaped how you think about right and wrong? good and bad?
What did you think of the these questions?